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T-34

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The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank produced from 1940 to 1958. Although its armor and armament were surpassed by later tanks of the era, it has been often credited as the most effective, efficient and influential design of World War II.[2] First produced at the KhPZ factory in Kharkov (Kharkiv, Ukraine), it was the mainstay of Soviet armored forces throughout World War II, and widely exported afterwards. It was the most-produced tank of the war, and the second most-produced tank of all time, after its successor, the T-54/55 series (Harrison 2002). In 1996, the T-34 was still in service in at least twenty-seven countries.

The T-34 was developed from the BT series of fast tanks and was intended to replace both the BT-5 and BT-7 tanks and the T-26 infantry tank in service (Zaloga & Grandsen 1984:66, 111). At its introduction, it was the tank with the best balanced attributes of firepower, mobility, protection and ruggedness, although initially its battlefield effectiveness suffered from the unsatisfactory ergonomic layout of its crew compartment, scarcity of radios, and poor tactical employment. The two-man turret-crew arrangement required the commander to serve as the gunner, an arrangement common to most Soviet tanks of the day; this proved to be inferior to three-man (commander, gunner and loader) turret crews.

The design and construction of the tank were continuously refined during the war to enhance effectiveness and decrease costs, allowing steadily greater numbers of T-34s to be fielded. In early 1944, the improved T-34-85 was introduced, with a more powerful 85 mm gun and a three-man turret design. By the war's end in 1945, the versatile and cost-effective T-34 had replaced many light and heavy tanks in service, and accounted for the majority of Soviet tank production. Its evolutionary development led directly to the T-54/55 series of tanks, built until 1981 and still operational as of 2010.

Type Medium tank
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1940–present
Used by Soviet Union and 39 others
Wars World War II, Korean War, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Middle East, African conflicts, Vietnam War, Bosnian War
Production history
Designer T-34 Main Design Bureau - KMDB
Designed 1937–40
Produced 1940–58
Number built 84,070
Specifications (T-34 Model 1941[1])
Weight 26.5 tonnes (29.2 short tons)
Length 6.68 m (21.9 ft)
Width 3.00 m (9.8 ft)
Height 2.45 m (8.0 ft)
Crew 4

Primary

armament

76.2 mm (3.00 in) F-34 tank gun
Secondary

armament

2 × 7.62 mm (0.308 in) DT machine guns
Engine 12-cyl. Gaz diesel model V-2

500 hp (370 kW)

Power/weight 17.5 hp/tonne
Suspension Christie
Operational

range

400 km (250 mi)
Speed 53 km/h (33 mph)
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